Primary care doctors and urologists may rely on many different types of tests when diagnosing or screening for a urologic condition. Because proper urinary function requires coordination of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra, urological symptoms could have many possible causes. Doctors will usually recommend a variety of diagnostic tests depending on the specific symptoms.

Patients with urological symptoms are diagnosed based on clinical features and routine diagnostics. Urodynamic tests help to evaluate functional and anatomical abnormalities of the lower urinary tract. The most common tests are cystometry, uroflowmetry, urethral pressure profile, and leak point pressure. Imaging may be used in combination to diagnose underlying pathologies and is often used to assess for anatomical obstructions or abnormalities (e.g., urinary obstructions caused by kidney stones, renal masses).

Treatments, Tests and Therapies



A cystoscopy is an operational procedure that allows the doctor to examine the urethra, urinary bladder, and openings to the ureters. This procedure is performed by using the cystoscope which is a thin tube with a camera and light on the end. During a cystoscopy treatment, a doctor inserts this tube through the urethra and into the bladder. This facilitates to visualize the internal portions of the bladder. The camera provides the magnified images of the interior which is displayed on a screen where the doctor can see them. Cystoscopy helps to check inside the bladder which is not well displayed on X-Rays. This helps to detect tumors, sites of bleeding, signs of infection, stones (calculi) and causes of bladder outlet obstruction. Cystoscopy also assists in removing tumors and stones from the bladder.

Treatments of Cystoscopy

This procedure allows the doctor to examine the lining of the bladder and the urethra. A hollow tube (cystoscope), equipped with a lens, is inserted into the urethra and slowly advanced into the bladder.

Risks of Cystoscopy

May include: 

-          Infection

-          Bleeding

-          Pain

Complications of Cystoscopy

May include: Swollen urethra Infection Bleeding


A diagnostic test done to measure the speed of urine flow rate electronically, the urine is calculated in milliliters as urine passed per second. Uroflowmetry for senior citizens is measures the rate of flow of urine in mL/sec. the test is known as uroflow test, which helps doctor to now the cause of urinating problems. It includes the measurement of slow, maximum and average volumes of urine released from the body and how much time it takes. The difficulties in urinating mostly face by senior citizens because of age barrier.

How the test is performed

You will urinate in a special urinal or toilet with a machine that has a measuring device. You will be asked to begin urinating after the machine has started. When you finish, the machine will create a report for your health care provider.

How to prepare for the test

Your health care provider may ask you to temporarily stop taking medications that can affect the test results. Uroflowmetry is best done when you have a full bladder. Do not urinate for 2 hours before the test. Drink extra fluids so you will have plenty of urine for the test. Do not place any toilet tissue in the test machine.